Presidential candidate and president
Nov 14, · November 08 John F. Kennedy elected president John F. Kennedy, 43, becomes the youngest man ever to be elected president of the United States, narrowly beating Republican Vice President Richard. Presidents John F. Kennedy was the 35th President of the United States (), the youngest man elected to the office. On November 22, , when he was hardly past his first thousand days in.
John Fitzgerald Kennedy May 29, — November 22,often referred to by his initials JFKwas an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States from until his assassination in Kennedy served at the height of the Cold Warand the majority of his work as president concerned relations with the Soviet Union and Cuba. A DemocratKennedy represented Massachusetts in both houses of the U. Congress prior to becoming president. Kennedy was born into a wealthy, political family in Brookline, Massachusetts.
After a brief stint in journalism, Kennedy represented a working-class Boston district in the U. House of Representatives from to He was subsequently elected to the U.
S Senate and served as the junior senator for Massachusetts from to In the presidential electionhe narrowly defeated Republican opponent Richard Nixonwho was the incumbent vice president. Kennedy's humor, charm, and youth in addition to his father's money and contacts were great assets in the campaign.
Kennedy's campaign gained momentum after the first televised presidential debates in American history. Kennedy was the first Catholic elected president. Kennedy's administration included high tensions with communist states in the Cold War.
As a result, he increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam. The Strategic Hamlet Program began in Vietnam during his presidency. He rejected Operation Northwoods plans for false flag attacks to gain approval for a war against Cuba in March However, his administration continued to plan for an invasion of Cuba in the summer of He also signed the first nuclear weapons treaty in October Kennedy presided over the establishment of the Peace CorpsAlliance for How to make pudina chatni with Latin America, and the continuation of the Apollo space program with the goal of landing a man on the Moon.
He how to scotchgard your couch supported the civil rights movementbut was only somewhat successful in passing his New Frontier domestic policies. On November 22,he was assassinated in Dallas. Vice President Lyndon B. Johnson assumed the presidency upon Kennedy's death.
Marxist and former U. Marine Lee Harvey Oswald was arrested for the state crimebut he was shot and killed by Jack Ruby two days later. The FBI and the Warren Commission both concluded Oswald had acted alone in the assassination, but various groups contested the Warren Report and believed that Kennedy was the victim of a conspiracy.
Despite his truncated presidency, Kennedy ranks highly in polls of U. His personal life has also been the focus of considerable sustained interest following public revelations in the s of his chronic health ailments and extramarital affairs. Kennedy was the most recent U. President to have been assassinated as well as the most recent U. Kennedy Sr. His paternal grandfather, P. Kennedyserved as a Massachusetts state legislator.
Kennedy's maternal grandfather and namesake, John F. Congressman and was elected to two terms as Mayor of Boston. All four of his grandparents were children of Irish immigrants. Kennedy lived in Brookline for the first ten years of his life. He attended the local St. Aidan's Churchwhere he was baptized on June 19, JFK's earliest memories involved accompanying his grandfather Fitzgerald on walking tours of historic sites in Boston and discussions at the family dinner table about politics, sparking his interest in history and public service.
Inthe Dexter School announced it would not reopen before October after an outbreak of polio in Massachusetts. In Aprilhe had an appendectomyafter which he withdrew from Canterbury and recuperated at home. In SeptemberKennedy started attending Choatea prestigious boarding school in Wallingford, Connecticutfor 9th through 12th grade.
His older brother Joe Jr. He spent his first years at Choate in his older what does gentile mean in italian shadow and compensated with rebellious behavior that attracted a coterie. Their most notorious stunt was exploding a toilet seat with a powerful firecracker. In the next chapel assembly, the strict headmaster, George St. John, brandished the toilet seat and spoke of certain "muckers" who would "spit in our sea".
During his years at Choate, Kennedy was beset by health problems that culminated with his emergency hospitalization in at Yale New Haven Hospitalwhere doctors suspected leukemia. In SeptemberKennedy made his first trip abroad when he traveled to London with what is qvar 80 mcg for parents and his sister Kathleen.
Ill-health forced his return to the United States in October of that year, when he enrolled late and attended Princeton University but had to leave after two months due to a gastrointestinal illness. He convalesced further at the family winter home in Palm Beach, then spent the spring of working as a ranch hand on the 40,acre 16,hectare Jay Six cattle ranch outside Benson, Arizona.
In SeptemberKennedy enrolled at Harvard Collegeand his application essay stated: "The reasons that I have for wishing to go to Harvard are several. I feel that Harvard can give me a better background and a better liberal education than any other university. I have always wanted to go there, as I have felt that it is not just another college, but is a university with something definite to offer.
Then too, I would like to go to the same college as my father. To be a 'Harvard man' is an enviable distinction, and one that I sincerely hope I shall attain. He tried out for the football, golf, and swimming teams and earned a spot on the varsity swimming team. Roosevelt 's U. Ambassador to the Court of St. He then went to Berlin, where the U.
Kennedy was sent as his father's representative to help with arrangements for American survivors of SS Athenia before flying back to the U. When Kennedy was an upperclassman at Harvard, he began to take his studies more seriously and developed an interest in political philosophy.
He made the dean's list in his junior year. The thesis eventually became a bestseller under the title Why England Slept. Kennedy became increasingly supportive of U. This created a split between the Kennedy and Roosevelt families.
InKennedy graduated cum laude from Harvard with a Bachelor of Arts in government, concentrating on international affairs. That fall, he enrolled at the Stanford Graduate School of Business and audited classes there. InKennedy attempted to enter the army's Officer Candidate School. Despite months of training, he was medically disqualified due to his chronic lower back problems.
He was commissioned an ensign on October 26, and joined the staff of the Office of Naval Intelligence in Washington, D. Accompanied by a female acquaintance from a wealthy Newport family, the couple had stopped in Middletown, Rhode What is a jumbo mortgage loan at the cemetery where the decorated, naval spy, Commander Hugo W.
KoehlerUSN, had been buried the previous year. Ambling around the plots near the tiny St. Columba's chapelKennedy paused over Koehler's white what does mediterranean diet consist of cross grave marker and pondered his own mortality, hoping out loud that when his time came, he would not have to die without religion.
Senator Claiborne Pell had become good friends and political allies, although they had been acquaintances since the mids during their " salad days " on the same Newport debutante party "circuit" and when Pell had dated Kathleen "Kick" Kennedy.
His first command was PT from December 7,until February 23,  It was a patrol torpedo PT boat how to evaluate the cube in cognos for training while Kennedy was an instructor at Melville. During the trip south, he was hospitalized briefly in Jacksonville after diving into the cold water to unfoul a propeller.
Thereafter, Kennedy was assigned duty in Panama and later in the Pacific theaterwhere he eventually commanded two more PT boats. Intelligence had been sent to Kennedy's Commander Thomas G. Warfield expecting the arrival of the large Japanese naval force that would pass on the evening of August 1.
Of the 24 torpedoes fired that night by eight of the American PTs, not one hit the Japanese convoy. Kennedy gathered around the wreckage his surviving ten crew members to vote on whether to "fight or surrender". Kennedy stated: "There's nothing in the book about a situation like this. A lot of you men have families and some of you have children. What do you want to do? I have nothing to lose.
On August 4,he and his executive officer, What is an imprint in publishing Lenny Thom, assisted his injured and hungry crew on a demanding swim 3. They swam against a strong current, and once again Kennedy towed the badly burned motor machinist "Pappy" MacMahon by his life vest. The somewhat larger Olasana Island how to make a lush bath bomb ripe coconut trees, but still no fresh water.
Kennedy and Ross found a small canoe, packages of crackers, candy and a fifty-gallon drum of drinkable water left by the Japanese, which Kennedy paddled another half mile back to Olasana in the acquired canoe to provide his hungry crew. It only took Kennedy a month to recover and return to duty, commanding the PT He and his crew removed the original torpedo tubes and depth charges and refitted the vessel into a heavily armed gunboat, mounting two automatic 40mm guns and ten.
The new plan involved attaching a gunboat to each PT boat section adding gun range and defensive power against barges and shore batteries which the 59 went on to encounter on several occasions from mid-October to mid-November. The 59 acted as a shield from shore fire and protected them as they escaped on two rescue landing craft at the base of the Warrior River at Choiseul Islandtaking ten marines aboard and delivering them to safety.
After receiving treatment for his back injury, he was released from active duty in late Kennedy's father also requested that his son receive the Silver Star, which is awarded for gallantry in action.
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The presidency of John F. Kennedy began at noon EST on January 20, , when Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States, and ended on November 22, , upon his assassination, a span of 1, days. Elected in as the 35th president of the United States, year-old John F. Kennedy became one of the youngest U.S. presidents, as well as the first Roman Catholic. Watch President John F. Kennedy delivering his inaugural address at Washington, D.C., January 20, U.S. Pres. John F. Kennedy delivering his inaugural address, Washington, D.C., January 20, © John F. Kennedy Presidential Library and Museum, .
The presidency of John F. Kennedy began at noon EST on January 20, , when Kennedy was inaugurated as the 35th President of the United States , and ended on November 22, , upon his assassination , a span of 1, days.
A Democrat from Massachusetts , he took office following the presidential election , in which he narrowly defeated Richard Nixon , the then— incumbent Vice President. He was succeeded by Vice President Lyndon B. In October , the Kennedy administration learned that Soviet ballistic missiles had been deployed in Cuba; the resulting Cuban Missile Crisis carried a risk of nuclear war , but ended in a compromise with the Soviets publicly withdrawing their missiles from Cuba and the U.
To contain Communist expansion in Asia, Kennedy increased the number of American military advisers in South Vietnam by a factor of 18; a further escalation of the American role in the Vietnam War would take place after Kennedy's death. In Latin America , Kennedy's Alliance for Progress aimed to promote human rights and foster economic development. In domestic politics, Kennedy had made bold proposals in his New Frontier agenda, but many of his initiatives were blocked by the conservative coalition of Northern Republicans and Southern Democrats.
The failed initiatives include federal aid education, medical care for the aged, and aid to economically depressed areas. Though initially reluctant to pursue civil rights legislation, in Kennedy proposed a major civil rights bill that ultimately became the Civil Rights Act of The economy experienced steady growth, low inflation and a drop in unemployment rates during Kennedy's tenure.
Kennedy adopted Keynesian economics and proposed a tax cut bill that was passed into law as the Revenue Act of Kennedy also established the Peace Corps and promised to land an American on the moon, thereby intensifying the Space Race with the Soviet Union. Kennedy was assassinated on November 22, while visiting Dallas , Texas. The Warren Commission concluded that Lee Harvey Oswald acted alone in assassinating Kennedy, but the assassination gave rise to a wide array of conspiracy theories.
Kennedy was the first Roman Catholic elected president, as well as the youngest candidate ever to win a U. Historians and political scientists tend to rank Kennedy as an above-average president. Senator Kennedy had finished second on the vice presidential ballot of the Democratic National Convention. After Republican President Dwight D.
Eisenhower was reelected over Adlai Stevenson in the presidential election , Kennedy began to prepare a bid for the presidency in the election. Senator Hubert Humphrey of Minnesota emerged as Kennedy's primary challenger in the Democratic primaries ,  but Kennedy's victory in the heavily- Protestant state of West Virginia prompted Humphrey's withdrawal from the race.
Johnson of Texas to win the presidential nomination on the first ballot of the convention. He easily won the party's primaries and received the nearly-unanimous backing of the delegates at the Republican National Convention. Nixon chose Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. Not wanting to concede any state as "unwinnable," Nixon undertook a fifty-state strategy , while Kennedy focused the states with the most electoral votes. On November 8, , Kennedy defeated Nixon in one of the closest presidential elections of the 20th century.
Byrd of Virginia, as did one faithless elector [b] in Oklahoma. Kennedy was inaugurated as the nation's 35th president on January 20, , on the East Portico of the United States Capitol. Chief Justice Earl Warren administered the oath of office. All this will not be finished in the first one hundred days. Nor will it be finished in the first one thousand days, nor in the life of this Administration, nor even perhaps in our lifetime on this planet.
But let us begin. The address reflected Kennedy's confidence that his administration would chart a historically significant course in both domestic policy and foreign affairs. The contrast between this optimistic vision and the pressures of managing daily political realities at home and abroad would be one of the main tensions running through the early years of his administration. Kennedy spent the eight weeks following his election choosing his cabinet, staff and top officials.
Douglas Dillon , a business-oriented Republican who had served as Eisenhower's Undersecretary of State , was selected as Secretary of the Treasury. Kennedy balanced the appointment of the relatively conservative Dillon by selecting liberal Democrats to hold two other important economic advisory posts; David E.
Rejecting liberal pressure to choose Stevenson as Secretary of State, Kennedy instead turned to Dean Rusk , a restrained former Truman official, to lead the Department of State.
Stevenson accepted a non-policy role as the ambassador to the United Nations. Kennedy become Attorney General, and the younger Kennedy became the "assistant president" who advised on all major issues. Kennedy scrapped the decision-making structure of Eisenhower,  preferring an organizational structure of a wheel with all the spokes leading to the president; he was ready and willing to make the increased number of quick decisions required in such an environment. Unlike Eisenhower, Kennedy did not have a chief of staff , but instead relied on a small number of senior aides, including appointments secretary Kenneth O'Donnell.
Schlesinger Jr. Taylor , and W. Averell Harriman. Kennedy made two appointments to the United States Supreme Court. Hastie , legal professor Paul A. Freund , and two state supreme court justices. Kennedy narrowed his choice down to Goldberg and White, and he ultimately chose the latter, who was quickly confirmed by the Senate. A second vacancy arose later in due to the retirement of Felix Frankfurter.
Kennedy quickly appointed Goldberg, who easily won confirmation by the Senate. Goldberg resigned from the court in to accept appointment as ambassador to the United Nations , but White remained on the court until , often serving as a key swing vote between liberal and conservative justices.
The president handled Supreme Court appointments. Other judges were selected by Attorney General Robert Kennedy. Including new federal judgeships created in , individuals were appointed to the federal courts. Among them was Thurgood Marshall , who later joined the Supreme Court. An agency to enable Americans to volunteer in developing countries appealed to Kennedy because it fit in with his campaign themes of self-sacrifice and volunteerism, while also providing a way to redefine American relations with the Third World.
Due in large part to Shriver's effective lobbying efforts, Congress approved the permanent establishment of the Peace Corps programs. Kennedy took great pride in the Peace Corps, and he ensured that it remained free of CIA influence, but he largely left its administration to Shriver. In the first twenty-five years, more than , Americans served in 44 countries as part of the program.
Most Peace Corps volunteers taught English in schools, but many became involved in activities like construction and food delivery. Kennedy's foreign policy was dominated by American confrontations with the Soviet Union , manifested by proxy contests in the global state of tension known as the Cold War.
Like his predecessors, Kennedy adopted the policy of containment , which sought to stop the spread of Communism. Fearful of the possibility of a global nuclear war, Kennedy implemented a new strategy known as flexible response. This strategy relied on conventional arms to achieve limited goals. As part of this policy, Kennedy expanded the United States special operations forces , elite military units that could fight unconventionally in various conflicts.
Kennedy hoped that the flexible response strategy would allow the U. In pursuing this military build-up, Kennedy shifted away from Eisenhower's deep concern for budget deficits caused by military spending. From to the number of nuclear weapons increased by 50 percent, as did the number of B bombers to deliver them. The new ICBM force grew from 63 intercontinental ballistic missiles to He authorized 23 new Polaris submarines, each of which carried 16 nuclear missiles.
Meanwhile, he called on cities to prepare fallout shelters for nuclear war. Fulgencio Batista , a Cuban dictator friendly towards the United States, had been forced out office in by the Cuban Revolution.
Many in the United States, including Kennedy himself, had initially hoped that Batista's successor, Fidel Castro would preside over democratic reforms. Dashing those hopes, by the end of Castro had embraced Marxism , confiscated American property, and accepted Soviet aid.
Despite the lack of direct U. But maybe we'll learn something from it. The summit would cover several topics, but both leaders knew that the most contentious issue would be that of Berlin , which had been divided into two cities with the start of the Cold War.
Kennedy's handling of the Bay of Pigs crisis convinced him that Kennedy would wither under pressure. Kennedy, meanwhile, wanted to meet with Khrushchev as soon as possible in order to reduce tensions and minimize the risk of nuclear war. Prior to the summit, Harriman advised Kennedy, "[Khrushchev's] style will be to attack you and see if he can get away with it.
Laugh about it, don't get into a fight. Rise above it. Have some fun. On June 4, , the president met with Khrushchev in Vienna , where he made it clear that any treaty between East Berlin and the Soviet Union that interfered with U. Kennedy, depressed and angry, assumed that his only option was to prepare the country for nuclear war, which he personally thought had a one-in-five chance of occurring. In the weeks immediately after the Vienna summit, more than 20, people fled from East Berlin to the western sector in reaction to statements from the USSR.
Kennedy began intensive meetings on the Berlin issue, where Dean Acheson took the lead in recommending a military buildup alongside NATO allies.
In the following months, in a sign of rising Cold War tensions, both the U. In the aftermath of the Bay of Pigs and invasion Cuban and Soviet leaders feared that the United States was planning another invasion of Cuba, and Khrushchev increased economic and military assistance to the island. The photos were shown to Kennedy on October 16, and a consensus was reached that the missiles were offensive in nature. Following the Vienna Summit, Khrushchev came to believe that Kennedy would not respond effectively to provocations.
He saw the deployment of the missiles in Cuba as a way to close the " missile gap " and provide for the defense of Cuba. The placement of missiles in Cuba thus threatened to significantly enhance the Soviet Union's first strike capability and even the nuclear imbalance.
Kennedy faced a dilemma: if the U. On a personal level, Kennedy needed to show resolve in reaction to Khrushchev, especially after the Vienna summit. Some favored an airstrike, possibly followed by an invasion of Cuba, but Robert Kennedy and others argued that a surprise airstrike would be immoral and would invite Soviet reprisals. Though he had initially favored an immediate air strike, the president quickly came to favor the naval blockade the first method of response, while retaining the option of an airstrike at a later date.
Finally, he announced that the U.