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Agriculture is a highly complex system that is tightly integrated with local-to-global food systems and interlinked with rural communities that both rely on agricultural production for economic viability and support agricultural labor, input, and market requirements. Mar 01, · Profits and government subsidies associated with intensive agriculture may also be reinvested by agribusiness enterprises in agricultural expansion. Cascade Effects. Land-use change is driven by multiple, interacting factors that originate from the local to the global scales, involve feedback loops, and cascades through land use systems (63).
Egyptian authorities should immediately release an anthropology master's degree student at Central European University CEUor present evidence of actual criminal teh, Human Rights Watch said today. Police arrested the student, Ahmed Samir Santawy, on February 1,and allegedly beat him. Prosecutors ordered him detained pending an investigation for how to make a easy doll house "joining a terrorist group" and "spreading false news.
Santawy's Belgian partner, Souheila Yildiz, and another relative told Human Rights Watch ls police held Santawy incommunicado what to do when a fish dies five days, until February how to calculate 1 2 3 4 5, then took him before the Supreme State Security Prosecution SSSPan abusive branch of public agricklture that routinely oversees unjust detentions.
Egyptian criminal procedures allow those prosecutors to detain people for up to five months without taking them before a judge. When Hte arrived from Vienna at Egypt's Sharm al-Sheikh International Airport on December 15, on vacation, airport officers thf him for two hours about his studies abroad before allowing him to leave, Yildiz said.
On January 23, seven armed Interior Ministry and National Security Agency officers and soldiers raided his family home in Cairo, searched it, and confiscated the home's surveillance camera recordings without showing a search or arrest warrant, according to official complaints the family submitted to authorities that Human Rights Watch reviewed. Santawy was not at home, and the officers left a note ordering him to see the National Security Agency officer at the Cairo's Fifth Settlement police station, Yildiz and the relative said.
They said that Santawy went to see the officer on January 30, but officers at the station told him to come back in two days. He went there again on February 1, but did not return in what year was the globe theatre built. The family believes he was moved to a National Security Agency building, where he was held incommunicado for five days with no access to family and lawyers.
Santawy appeared before the State Security prosecutors for interrogation on February 6. They added him to the Case 65 ofaccusing him of "joining a terrorist organization," and "spreading false news. The State Security prosecutors routinely rubber stamp security allegations, unsupported by evidence, to detain peaceful activists. Globzl relative said that the interrogations focused on Santawy's studies, activism, and Facebook posts that he denied writing.
Santawy's lawyer told al-Manassa website that Santway told prosecutors that he was severely beaten during interrogation at the National Security Agency's office inside the police station. On February 17, the State Security Prosecution renewed Santawy's pattrrn for 15 more days without him or his lawyer present, Yildiz said.
On February pahtern, the prosecution also accused him of "funding a terrorist organization," based on investigations that neither Santawy nor his lawyers were allowed to review. According to emails Human Rights Watch received from the president of the student union at the Central European University, Santawy's academic work focused on women's reproductive rights. Santawy is one of a number of Egyptians arbitrarily arrested, and in some cases disappeared, and prosecuted on their return to Egypt.
On February 22, the airport authorities arrested Gamal al-Gamal, a well-known political columnist, upon his return how to can string beans with a pressure cooker Turkey and took him before the State Security Prosecution after holding him incommunicado for five days. The prosecution added patteen to Case ofwhich includes dozens of journalists and activists, and ordered his pretrial detention on accusations of agdiculture false news and misusing social media platforms, apparently based solely on his writings.
Prosecutors and judges have since kept him in pretrial detention on charges that include spreading false news, calling for unauthorized protests, and incitement to commit violence and terrorist crimes, without pxttern any evidence of wrongdoing. Cairo International Airport security forces interrogated and later arrested Hisham Abdel Aziz, an Al Jazeera journalist, upon his arrival for his annual holiday from Qatar on June 20, State Security Prosecution ordered Abdel Aziz detained over charges of "belonging to a terrorist group and spreading false news.
He has been detained without trial despite exceeding the two-year limit on pretrial detention in Egyptian law. On November 29,security officers at Hurghada Airport stopped and interrogated Ismail al-Iskandrani, a freelance journalist and researcher, when he returned from Germany.
State Security gloval ordered him detained on charges of belonging to an illegal group and spreading false news. He was referred to military prosecution in Decemberand in Maya agribuxiness court sentenced him to 10 years in prison. Read the original article on HRW. AllAfrica publishes around reports a day from more than news organizations and over other institutions and individualsrepresenting a diversity of positions on every topic. We publish agricukture and views ranging from vigorous opponents of governments to government publications and spokespersons.
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BEST AGROLIFE LIMITED bearing CIN LDLPLC is a BSE listed Company incorporated on 10th January, in accordance with the provisions of the Companies Act, Agriculture and the food system are key to global climate change responses. Combining supply-side actions such as efficient production, transport, and processing with demand-side interventions such as modification of food choices, and reduction of food loss and waste, reduces GHG emissions and enhances food system resilience (high confidence). the historical pattern may be possible, to meet the specific classification requirement it is essential to look at historical data to detect any trend in portfolio allocation. Lipper uses .
Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. It is also defined as the process of people maintaining change in a homeostasis -balanced environment , in which the exploitation of resources , the direction of investments, the orientation of technological development, and institutional change are all in harmony and enhance both current and future potential to meet human needs and aspirations.
Sub-domains of sustainable development have been considered also: cultural , technological and political. Sustainability can also be defined as a socio-ecological process characterized by the pursuit of a common ideal. However, by persistently and dynamically approaching it, the process results in a sustainable system. As is typically practiced in natural resource management , the goal is to maintain this equilibrium, available resources must not be depleted faster than resources are naturally generated.
Modern use of the term "sustainability" is broad and difficult to define precisely. Ways of reducing undesirable human impact may include environmentally-friendly chemical engineering , environmental resources management , environmental protection , and human-population control.
Information is gained from green computing , green chemistry , earth science , environmental science , and conservation biology. Ecological economics studies the fields of academic research that aim to address human economies and natural ecosystems. Moving towards sustainability can involve social challenges that entail international and national law , urban planning and transport , supply-chain management , local and individual lifestyles and ethical consumerism.
Ways of living more sustainably can take many forms, such as:. Despite the increased popularity of the use of the term "sustainability",  the possibility that human societies will achieve environmental sustainability has been, and continues to be, questioned—in light of environmental degradation , climate change , overconsumption , population growth and societies' pursuit of unlimited economic growth in a closed system.
The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere tenere , to hold; sub , under. Sustain can mean "maintain", "support", "uphold" or "endure".
The World Summit on Social Development identified sustainable development goals, such as economic development, social development, and environmental protection. Based on the ITC Standards the most frequently covered products are agricultural products, followed by processed food. Some sustainability experts and practitioners have illustrated four pillars of sustainability or a quadruple bottom line.
One such pillar is future generations, which emphasizes the long-term thinking associated with sustainability. Sustainable development consists of balancing local and global efforts to meet basic human needs without destroying or degrading the natural environment.
A study from pointed out that environmental justice is as important as sustainable development. The simple definition that sustainability is something that improves "the quality of human life while living within the carrying capacity of supporting ecosystems",  though vague, conveys the idea of sustainability having quantifiable limits. But sustainability is also a call to action, a task in progress or "journey" and therefore a political process, so some definitions set out common goals and values.
This suggested a more complex figure of sustainability, which included the importance of the domain of 'politics'. More than that, sustainability implies responsible and proactive decision-making and innovation that minimizes negative impact and maintains a balance between ecological resilience , economic prosperity, political justice and cultural vibrancy to ensure a desirable planet for all species now and in the future.
While the United Nations Millennium Declaration identified principles and treaties on sustainable development, including economic development, social development , and environmental protection, it continued using three domains: economics, environment, and social sustainability.
More recently, using a systematic domain model that responds to the debates over the last decade, the Circles of Sustainability approach distinguished four domains of economic, ecological, political and cultural sustainability ;  this in accord with the United Nations , Unesco , Agenda 21 , and in particular the Agenda 21 for culture which specifies culture as the fourth domain of sustainable development.
Rather, it involves treating all four domains—economy, ecology, politics, and culture—as social including economics and distinguishing between ecology as the intersection of the human and natural worlds and the environment as that which goes far beyond what we as humans can ever know.
Another model suggests humans' attempt to achieve all of their needs and aspirations via seven modalities: economy, community, occupational groups, government, environment, culture, and physiology. Human sustainability can be achieved by attaining sustainability in all levels of the seven modalities. Integral elements of sustainability are research and innovation activities.
A telling example is the European environmental research and innovation policy. It aims at defining and implementing a transformative agenda to greening the economy and the society as a whole so to make them sustainable. Research and innovation in Europe are financially supported by the programme Horizon , which is also open to participation worldwide. Additionally, instigating innovative and sustainable travel and transportation solutions must play a vital role in this process.
The need to gather as a society to plant more trees in our backyards is necessary and therefore a task for the next generation. In the United Nations Environment Programme issued a report describing three major threats to sustainability: climate change , biodiversity loss and pollution. The report states that as of the year humanity fails to properly address the main environmental challenges. The COVID pandemic is also linked to environmental issues, including climate change, deforestation and wildlife trade.
Resilience in ecology is the capacity of an ecosystem to absorb disturbance and still retain its basic structure and viability. Resilience-thinking evolved from the need to manage interactions between human-constructed systems and natural ecosystems sustainably even though to policymakers a definition remains elusive.
Resilience-thinking addresses how much planetary ecological systems can withstand assault from human disturbances and still deliver the service's current and future generations need from them. It is also concerned with commitment from geopolitical policymakers to promote and manage essential planetary ecological resources to promote resilience and achieve sustainability of these essential resources for benefit of future generations of life.
Hence, the importance to move beyond resilience and antifragility, namely, Tropophilia. The most practical view of sustainability is in terms of efficiency. Another not so practical view of sustainability is closed systems that maintain processes of productivity indefinitely by replacing resources used by actions of people with resources of equal or greater value by those same people without degrading or endangering natural biotic systems.
In nature, the accounting occurs naturally through a process of adaptation as an ecosystem returns to viability from an external disturbance. The adaptation is a multi-stage process that begins with the disturbance event earthquake, volcanic eruption, hurricane, tornado, flood, or thunderstorm , followed by absorption , utilization, or deflection of the energy or energies that the external forces created.
In analysing systems such as urban and national parks, dams, farms and gardens, theme parks, open-pit mines, water catchments, one way to look at the relationship between sustainability and resiliency is to view the former with a long-term vision and resiliency as the capacity of human engineers to respond to immediate environmental events.
The name sustainability is derived from the Latin sustinere tenere, to hold; sub, under. Sustain can mean "maintain," "support," "uphold," or "endure".
In early human history, the use of fire and desire for specific foods may have altered the natural composition of plant and animal communities. The Western industrial revolution of the 18th to 19th centuries tapped into the vast growth potential of the energy in fossil fuels.
Coal was used to power ever more efficient engines and later to generate electricity. Modern sanitation systems and advances in medicine protected large populations from disease. In the late 20th century, environmental problems became global in scale.
In the s, the ecological footprint of humanity exceeded the carrying capacity of earth, therefore the mode of life of humanity became unsustainable. In the 21st century, there is increasing global awareness of the threat posed by the human greenhouse effect , produced largely by forest clearing and the burning of fossil fuels.
There are at least three letters from the scientific community about the growing threat to Sustainability and ways to remove the threat. The philosophical and analytic framework of sustainability draws on and connects with many different disciplines and fields; in recent years an area that has come to be called sustainability science has emerged.
Sustainability is studied and managed over many scales levels or frames of reference of time and space and in many contexts of environmental, social, and economic organizations. The focus ranges from the total carrying capacity sustainability of planet Earth to the sustainability of economic sectors, ecosystems, countries, municipalities, neighborhood, home gardens, individual lives, individual goods, and services this includes the use of natural resources prudently to meet current needs without affecting the ability of the future generation from meeting their needs.
In short, it can entail the full compass of biological and human activity or any part of it. The sheer size and complexity of the planetary ecosystem has proven problematic for the design of practical measures to reach global sustainability.
To shed light on the big picture, explorer and sustainability campaigner Jason Lewis has drawn parallels to other, more tangible closed systems. For example, he likens human existence on Earth — isolated as the planet is in space, whereby people cannot be evacuated to relieve population pressure and resources cannot be imported to prevent accelerated depletion of resources — to life at sea on a small boat isolated by water.
A major driver of human impact on Earth systems is the destruction of biophysical resources , and especially, the Earth's ecosystems. The environmental impact of a community or humankind as a whole depends both on population and impact per person, which in turn depends in complex ways on what resources are being used, whether or not those resources are renewable, and the scale of the human activity relative to the carrying capacity of the ecosystems involved.
Careful resource management can be applied at many scales, from economic sectors like agriculture, manufacturing, and industry, to work organizations, the consumption patterns of households and individuals and to the resource demands of individual goods and services. One of the initial attempts to express human impact mathematically was developed in the s and is called the I PAT formula. This formulation attempts to explain human consumption in terms of three components: population numbers, levels of consumption which it terms "affluence", although the usage is different , and impact per unit of resource use which is termed "technology", because this impact depends on the technology used.
The equation is expressed:. According to the IPCC Fifth Assessment Report , human consumption, with current policy, by the year should be 7 times bigger than in the year In recent years, concepts based on re- cycling resources are increasingly gaining importance. The most prominent among these concepts might be the Circular economy , with its comprehensive support by China and the European Union. There is also a broad range of similar concepts or schools of thought, including cradle-to-cradle laws of ecology, looped and performance economy, regenerative design , industrial ecology , biomimicry , and the blue economy.
These concepts seem intuitively to be more sustainable than the current linear economic system. The reduction of resource inputs into and waste and emission leakage out of the system reduces resource depletion and environmental pollution. However, these simple assumptions are not sufficient to deal with the involved systemic complexity and disregards potential trade-offs.
For example, the social dimension of sustainability seems to be only marginally addressed in many publications on the Circular Economy, and some cases require different or additional strategies, such as purchasing new, more energy-efficient equipment. A review of a team of researchers from Cambridge and TU Delft identified eight different relationship types between sustainability and the circular economy, namely: .
Sustainability measurement is the quantitative basis for the informed management of sustainability. They are applied over a wide range of spatial and temporal scales. Some of the best known and most widely used sustainability measures include corporate sustainability reporting , Triple Bottom Line accounting , World Sustainability Society, Circles of Sustainability , and estimates of the quality of sustainability governance for individual countries using the Environmental Sustainability Index and Environmental Performance Index.
Two of the most known ways to measure environmental sustainability is Planetary boundaries  and Ecological footprint. According to the most recent July revision of the official United Nations World Population Prospects, the world population is projected to reach 8. This increase will be distributed among the population aged 15—59 1. In contrast, the population of the more developed regions is expected to undergo only slight increase from 1.
Emerging economies like those of China and India aspire to the living standards of the Western world, as does the non-industrialized world in general. At the global scale, scientific data now indicates that humans are living beyond the carrying capacity of planet Earth and that this cannot continue indefinitely. This scientific evidence comes from many sources but is presented in detail in the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment and the planetary boundaries framework. The ecological footprint measures human consumption in terms of the biologically productive land and sea area needed to provide for all the competing demands on nature, including the provision of food, fiber, the accommodation of urban infrastructure and the absorption of waste, including carbon from burning fossil fuel.
In , it required on average 2. The figure right examines sustainability at the scale of individual countries by contrasting their Ecological Footprint with their UN Human Development Index a measure of standard of living. The graph shows what is necessary for countries to maintain an acceptable standard of living for their citizens while, at the same time, maintaining sustainable resource use.
The general trend is for higher standards of living to become less sustainable. As always, population growth has a marked influence on levels of consumption and the efficiency of resource use.
The information generated by reports at the national, regional and city scales confirm the global trend towards societies that are becoming less sustainable over time. Romanian American economist Nicholas Georgescu-Roegen , a progenitor in economics and a paradigm founder of ecological economics , has argued that the carrying capacity of Earth — that is, Earth's capacity to sustain human populations and consumption levels — is bound to decrease sometime in the future as Earth's finite stock of mineral resources is presently being extracted and put to use.