Shale gas formations are “unconventional” reservoirs – i.e., reservoirs of low “permeability.” Permeability refers to the capacity of a porous, sediment, soil – or rock in this case – to transmit a fluid. This contrasts with a “conventional” gas reservoir produced from sands and carbonates (such as . shale layers, becoming shale gas. This map shows what geologists believe the land looked like million years ago during the Middle Devonian Period (with outline of today’s states). Also indicated are the bodies of water that occupied the Michigan, Appalachian and Illinois basins.
That's held in a clay rock, a dark, black clay rock, which splits into slivers, rather like slate. And that's shale. So it's gas that comes out of that type of rock. It's held within very, very low permeability rocks, which have got an incredibly low grain size. And the gas is actually held within the rocks. And if it wasn't hsale human intervention, the gas would not be able to be liberated from the rocks. It's harder to get out. And that's why people call it unconventional.
Because it's a bit different to the way that the oil and gas companies are used to what is shale gas pdf with. In the North Sea, a lot of the production that we've carried out whta gas in the UK has been out of sandstones that have contained this gas. Ehat usually the shale is what we call yas cap rock. It's the material above the sandstone that actually keeps the gas in. But it does contain gas itself in some areas in the UK.
A lot of the shale gas is preserved at sort of two or three kilometres, four kilometers depth. And that's because it's still deep enough that the gas has not degassed from that rock. It's a very boring looking rock. It's sort of a dark grey black stuff. If you ever go walking around in the Peak District or the Pennines, quite often if you're walking on grass in between big thick coarse layers of sandstone, you're probably walking on shale.
It doesn't come to the surface very often. But that's the only place you can really see it. If you go to somewhere like Mam Tor in Derbyshire you can see it there. But the gqs thing is that although it only comes to the surface how to clean a pizza stone for the grill a few places, it's underneath the surface in quite a lot of places. The main areas of interest are the northwest of England.
To the west and east of the Peak Districts in the Pennines. It goes right underneath places like Lincolnshire and Lancashire. East Yorkshire up into northeast England.
Wales potentially have some deposits and sort of the central about area of Scotland. There's also some interest in southern England around the-- I'm trying to think-- the Weald area. Perhaps a little bit in Scotland. But the best place, it looks like, the north of England. There are loads of different places where we might look for shale gas, but at the how to cite an internet source, expiration is at a very early phase.
So we have to put a lot more work in before we can really quantify where the productive shale areas might be. The UK is sale lucky in that we have a range of different geological deposits in our country and we have a lot of sediments. So we've got strata from the right geological era to produce these marine deposits.
And some of that is viable in terms of having enough gas in it to potentially produce economic shale gas. Related Papers. Derek Ford oral history interview with Dr. Philip Van Beynen, January 24, By Derek Ford. Contesting urban fracking in Greater Manchester: opening how to add padding in html political space in an urban terrain of protest. By Craig Thomas.
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Shale gas is a natural gas (predominantly methane) found in shale rock. Natural gas produced from shale is often referred to as ‘unconventional’ and this refers to the type of rock type in which it is found. ‘Conventional’ oil and gas refers to. Shale oil & gas. Additional (%) Source: EIA Shale gas Shale oil Gboe Gboe Poland 25 3,3 France 23 4,7 Romania 9 0,3 Denmark 5 0 UK 4 0,7 Netherlands 4 2,9 Others 9 1 Total 80 12,9 Country. Europe. Shale gas is one of several forms of “unconventional gas,” which also includes coalbed methane, tight sand gas and methane datingfuckdating.com Size: 1MB.
Shale Gas: An Overview. Tristan Euzen. Download PDF. A short summary of this paper. As a North American company focused on franco-canadian technological cooperation, IFP Canada needs to understand the technological challenges associated with shale gas exploration and development. The material used to build this report consists in hundreds of technical and more general papers, as well as attendance to specialized sessions of oil and gas conferences, symposiums and short courses.
A large part of this material has been compiled in a digital format pdf and sorted by topics and areas basin or play. After an introduction presenting the general context of the recent development of the North American shale gas industry, the first part focuses on the geological factors that control the gas shale prospectivity and productivity.
This chapter discusses the impact, variations and measurement techniques of each of these parameters. The second part focuses on external factors which relate to our ability to technically and economically extract these resources. It includes completion and stimulation methods as well as economical, regulatory and environmental aspects of the shale gas industry. Figure 2: General classification of a oil and b gas resources based on reservoir and fluid properties. Figure 3: Increases in production and well count in the Barnett shale from to Figure 4: Estimation of technically recoverable shale gas resources in the world.
Figure 5: Location map of North American shale gas plays. Figure 6: Controls on organic matter accumulation in sediments. Figure 7: Time chart of the main North American shale gas plays. Figure 8: Paleogeographic maps and location of the main organic rich shale basin systems in North America.
Figure Range of maturity Vitrinite reflectance of most of the productive and some of the prospective shale gas plays of North America Figure Processes leading to the formation of thermogenic gas.
Figure Relative proportion of quartz, clay and carbonate in various shale play in North America. Figure Influence of mineralogy on shale porosity.
Figure Size of pore throat and particles in sandstones and shale. Figure Pore types and sizes observed in gas shale reservoirs. Figure Main types of porosity in shales. Figure Porosity range of various North American shale plays. Figure Schematic illustration of gas adsorption. Figure Langmuir isotherm.
Figure Adsorption isotherm of the Barnett shale composite at two different temperatures. Figure Examples of the contribution of adsorbed gas to total gas in place in several shale gas plays. Figure Comparison of gas flow in micropores where the flow is no-slip and in nanopores where the flow is slip.
Figure Stress and orientation dependency of pulse decay permeability to He measured on core plugs from various shale plays. Figure Scale dependency of permeability measured on crushed samples with various particle sizes. Figure Triaxial compression apparatus. Figure Comparison between brittleness calculated from mineralogy and from full wavefrom sonic suite. Figure Visualization of Young modulus and differential horizontal stress ratio a measure of stress anisotropy derived from 3D seismic of the Colorado shale in Central Alberta.
Figure Influence of stress regime on stress anisotropy and magnitude. Figure impact of natural fractures on the propagation of hydraulic fractures in the Barnett shale. Figure Natural gas chimneys in Marcellus shale. Figure Illustration of how horizontal multistage fracturing help draining gas from shale matrix. Figure Horizontal well case study in the Woodford shale.
Figure Eagle Ford well completion example showing the optimization of stage and cluster placement based on brittleness RQF and stress log data. Figure Relationship between fluid type, reservoir properties and hydraulic fracture geometry.
Figure Average stimulation data for various US shale plays. Figure Fracturing fluid additives, main compounds and common uses. Figure McGuire-Sikora folds-of-Increase curves for pseudo-steady flow. Figure HyWay channel fracturing technology. Figure Microseismic map and cross-section and pumping chart of a 8 stages hydraulic fracturing in a Barnett well. Figure Simulation of the interaction between natural and hydraulic fractures.
Figure Annual gas production from US shale plays during the last decade. Gas production over time. Figure Average production curves of core areas of 5 US shale plays Baihly et al b. Dashed lines are decline curve analysis forecast.
Figure Different type of resources and their definition. Figure Example of uncertainty in reserve estimate based on hyperbolic exponent b Figure Rate transient analysis of a well from the Barnett shale Figure Breakeven price based on basic economic analysis of core areas of major US shale gas plays. Figure Comparison of dry gas and liquid rich well economics in Eagle Ford shale. Figure Eagle Ford leasing movement into oil window Figure North American shale gas production forecasts Figure Key stages of hydraulic fracturing water lifecycle and potential contamination risks associated.
Figure Target shale depth and base of treatable groundwater in selected shale plays. Figure Produced water management by shale gas basin. Figure Water treatment technologies. Figure Estimated water needs for drilling and fracturing wells in selected shale gas plays. Figure Water use by sector in producing area of major shale plays.
Figure Pounds of air pollutants produced per billion of Btu of energy. Figure EPA natural gas environmental impact assessment and regulation timeline. Figure Comparison of the magnitude different microseismic events and felt earthquake.
Figure Map showing location of earthquakes, producing Barnett shale gas wells and water disposal wells. In the recent years, spikes in oil and gas prices and increasing US dependency on foreign oil and gas import have also put pressure on the industry towards the exploration and development of unconventional oil and gas resources.
The most general definition is probably the one proposed by Dave Russum from AJM Petroleum Consultants, because it takes into account both reservoir and fluid properties Fig. On one end of the spectrum lie the conventional resources, which correspond to light crude oil and sweet natural gas trapped into porous and permeable reservoirs. These resources can be produced at a relatively low cost because hydrocarbons flow out of the reservoir by natural depletion and no expensive upgrading processing is required.
The application of these technologies comes at an increasing financial and environmental risk, which makes unconventional resources more challenging to develop. These components have to combine within in a specific space and time framework for a hydrocarbon accumulation to form. On the other hand, a gas shale is a source rock holding a significant amount of residual gas that has not been expelled. As a consequence, gas shale is a source, a reservoir and a trap at the same time.
The term shale gas more commonly used in the literature refers to the gas contained in the gas shale. Shale gas resources are less concentrated but more widespread than conventional gas resources.
Shale is the most widespread sedimentary rock on earth and commonly formed thick accumulations in the vast majority of sedimentary basins. The primary key parameters for assessing the prospectivity of shale are the initial content of organic matter TOC and the thermal maturity.
Biogenic shale gas also exist, in which case maturity is not an issue, but they only account for a minor contribution to North American shale gas production to date Antrim shale. Figure 2: General classification of a oil and b gas resources based on reservoir and fluid properties Russum, Since then, shale gas has been produced throughout the Appalachians, although produced volumes were marginal. Figure 3: Increases in production and well count in the Barnett shale from to Newell Additionally, the use of slickwater water plus chemical additives as fracturing fluid from , further increased productivity while decreasing the well cost.
In the recent years, new and potentially promising shale gas plays started to emerge in US, Canada, and around the world, where estimation of the technically recoverable shale gas resources keep growing consistently Fig. Russia and Middle East are not included. A location map of North American Shale gas and oil plays is published and regularly updated by the U. Energy Information Administration Fig. These intrinsic factors include organic matter content, thermal maturity, thickness, mineralogy, porosity, permeability, mechanical properties, natural fractures, pressure, temperature, stress regime, adsorbed and free gas content as well as gas composition.
Some plays are however described as hybrids because they contain organic rich shale intervals interbedded with gas charged silty layers. This is the case of the Montney formation in Western Canada, which contains a gradation of facies ranging from coastal sand to offshore shale and fine grained turbidites. In any case, the deposition and preservation of organic matter in the sediments is a key element of the formation of gas shale. The nature and proportions of organic precursors depends on the depositional setting, and result in different types of kerogen.
Type I kerogen mainly forms in lacustrine environment from algae and cynobacterias, type II kerogen forms in marine environment dominated by planctonic organisms, and type III kerogen is derived from plant in continental environment. Each type of kerogen contains different proportions of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen, that ultimately control the transformation potential of the kerogen and the type of hydrocarbon generated through thermal maturation.
Most of the currently producing and prospective gas shale plays in North America are overmature oil- prone source rocks kerogene types I and II; Passey et al