Making of a successful e-Governance project
datingfuckdating.com) a farmer centric national e-governance project launched during the Year in India was to progressively link wholesale markets (37 % of about ?·?e-District: e-District is a State Mission Mode Project under the National e-Governance Plan. The project aims to target high volume services and undertake backend computerization to electronically enable the delivery of these services through Common Service Centres (CSC). e-District has been envisaged by Government of Tamil Nadu as automation of workflow and internal processes [ ].
Thus, e-Governance is basically associated with carrying out the functions and achieving the results of governance through the utilization of I C T Information and Communications Technology. While Governance relates to safeguarding the legal rights of all citizens, an equally important how to get sbi net banking username and password is concerned with ensuring equitable access to public services and the benefits of economic growth to all.
It also ensures government to be transparent in its dealings, accountable for its activities and faster in its responses as part of good governance. However, this would require the government to change itself its processes, its outlook, laws, rules and regulations and also its way of interacting with the citizens. It would also require capacity building within the government and creation of general awareness about e-Governance among the citizens.
ICT provides efficient storing and retrieval of data, instantaneous transmission of information, processing information and data faster than the earlier manual systems, speeding up governmental processes, taking decisions expeditiously and judiciously, increasing transparency and enforcing accountability.
It also helps in increasing the reach of government both geographically and demographically. In the ensuing years, with ongoing computerization, tele-connectivity and internet connectivity established a large number of e-Governance initiatives, both at the Union and State levels. Types of Government Interaction in e-governance.
Some Initiatives in the same field. National E-governance Plan. Central government initiatives as mission mode projects MMP. Governaance Government of India has recognized the need to modernize the Central Government offices through the introduction of Information and Communications Technology.
India has emerged as a key tourist destination, besides being a major business and service hub. Immigration Check Post is goverance first point of contact that generates public and prject perception about the country, thus necessitating a state of the art system for prompt and user-friendly services. The unique identification project was conceived as an initiative that would provide identification for each resident across the country and would be used primarily as the basis for efficient delivery of welfare services.
It would also act as a tool for effective monitoring of various programs and schemes of the government. The Banking MMP is yet another step towards improving operational efficiency and reducing the delays and efforts involved in handling and settling transactions.
The MMP govrrnance is being implemented by the banking industry aims at streamlining various e-services initiatives undertaken by individual banks. Implementation is being done by the banks concerned, with the banking Department providing a broad framework and guidance. Modernization of Postal Services has been undertaken by the Department of Posts through computerization and networking of all projet offices using a central server-based system, and setting up of computerized registration centers CRCs.
Computerization of the PDS is envisaged as an end-to-end project covering key functional areas such as supply chain management including allocation and utilization reporting, storage and movement of food grains, grievance redressal and transparency portal, digitization of beneficiary database, Fair Price Shop automation, etc. The Panchayati Raj Institutions PRIs are saddled with the problems of inadequate physical and financial resources, technical capabilities and extremely limited computerization.
As goevrnance result, the potential of PRIs how to setup the internet on ps3 the preferred delivery channel for the schemes of State and Centre as well as for citizen services has not been fully realized. This project aims at providing support to the basic administrative unit i. A Project for Computerization of Land Records CLR was launched in with the intention to remove the inherent flaws in the manual system of maintenance and updation of Land Records.
Inthe scheme was extended to tehsils to start distribution of Records of Rights to landowners on demand. The focus of the entire operation has always been to employ state of the art information technology IT to galvanize and transform the existing land records system of the country.
A clear objective to re-engineer processes and enhance judicial productivity both qualitatively and quantitatively to make the justice delivery system affordable, accessible, cost effective, transparent and accountable.
The CSCs would provide high quality and cost-effective video, voice and data content and services, in the areas of e-governance, education, whag, telemedicine, entertainment as well as other private services.
A highlight of the CSCs is that it will offer web-enabled e-governance services in rural areas, including application forms, certificates, and utility payments such as electricity, telephone and water bills. Recent Initiatives. AEPS is a bank led model which prjoect online interoperable financial inclusion transaction through the Business correspondent of any bank using the Aadhaar authentication.
This has helped in financial inclusion. The four Aadhaar enabled basic types of banking transactions are as follows The vision of Digital India aims to transform the country into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. The programme will be implemented in phases from the current year till The Digital India is transformational in nature and would ensure that Government services are available to citizens electronically.
The program aims at providing digital infrastructure as a utility to every citizen as well as high-speed internet as projech core utility in all gram panchayats. This is project for linking the internet with remote villages in the country.
This scheme will broaden the reach of internet services to the rural areas in the country. The fundamental features of this scheme will be making the records handy to the government with ease.
It also includes Expansion of internet and commencement of IT-based jobs in rural areas. It will also boost the use of mobile phones and computers in rural areas. It will also expand the use of IT in agriculture and retail trade too. Certificates issued by the government education, residential, medical records, dhat certificates, etc.
The purpose of government is that copies of certificates issued by the government itself not to be carried around by people to government offices for various services. M-Governance is not a replacement for e-Governance, rather it complements e- Governance. Mobile applications also fovernance on good back office ICT infrastructure and work processes. It has potential of using mobile phones as input devices in certain areas where last mile connectivity becomes issues for simple data inputs of critical importance for decision making in government departments.
M-Governance is not a new concept. The private sector has been greatly leveraging these of mobile phones for delivery of value added services for the following which however are mostly SMS based: Banking, Media, Airlines, Telecom, Entertainment, News, Sports, Astrology, and Movie Tickets Etc.
M-governance has increased the productivity of public service personnel, improving the delivery of government information and services, increasing channels for public interactions and Lower costs leading to higher participation of people. It can be used by the user to send command to an application in text format.
USSD acts as a trigger for the application. Government initiatives for m-governance. It aims to provide government services to the people through mobile phones and tablets. It has been developed ptoject the core infrastructure for enabling the availability of public services through governnce devices.
It enables a government department to integrate both web and mobile based services seamlessly and enhances the access to electronic services tremendously leveraging the very high penetration of mobile phones, especially in rural areas. The m-Appstore currently hosts over live mobile applications. The live applications can be downloaded and installed free of cost on a mobile phone by any person.
Advantages of e-governance. Following are the advantages of E-Governance. Speed: Technology makes communication speedier. Internet, Phones, Cell Phones have wuat the time taken in normal communication. Cost Reduction: Most of the Government expenditure is appropriated towards the cost of stationary. Paper-based communication needs lots of stationary, printers, computers, etc. Internet and Phones makes communication cheaper saving valuable money for the Government. Transparency: Use of ICT makes governing profess transparent.
All the information of the Government would be made available on the internet. The citizens can see the information whenever they want to see. But this is only possible when every piece of information of the How to hack a smartboard with an iphone is uploaded on the internet and is available for the public to peruse. Current governing process leaves many ways to conceal the information from all the people.
ICT helps make the information available online eliminating all the possibilities of concealing of information. Accountability: Once the governing process is made transparent the Government is automatically made accountable.
Accountability is answerability of the Government to the people. It is the answerability for the deeds of the Government. An accountable Government is a responsible Government. Convenience: E-Government brings public services to citizens on their schedule and their venue. Improved Customer Service : E-Government allows to redeploy resources from back-end processing to the front line of customer service. What is a platycodon plant access to information : E-Government improves the accessibility of government information to citizens allowing it become an important resource in the making the decisions that affect daily life and so it helps in empowerment of citizens.
Disadvantages of e-governance. Electronic governments also consist on certain disadvantage. The main disadvantage of an electronic government is to move the government services into an electronic based system.
This system loses the person to person interaction which is valued by a lot of people. In addition, the implementation of an e-government service is that, with many technology based services, it is often easy to make the excuse e.
The implementation of an e government does have certain constraints. Literacy of the users and the ability to use the computer, users who do not know how to read and write would need assistance.
An example would be the senior citizens. In general, senior citizens do not have much computer education and they would have to approach a customer service officer for assistance. And also in case of rural people, it gives scope for middle man, who distort the information.
Studies have shown that there is potential for a reduction in the usability of government online due to factors such as the access to Internet technology and usability of services gocernance the ability to access to computers Even though the level of confidence in the security offered by government web sites are high, the public are still concerned over security, fear of spam from pfoject email iw, and government retention of transaction or interaction history.
There has been growing concern how to warm up voice before singing the privacy of data being collected as part of UID project. The security of cyber space and misuse of data is still holding back the citizens to full adaptation of Aadhar card. Challenges in e-governance. There are large numbers of potential barriers in the implementation of e-Governance. Some hindrance in the path of implementation, like security, unequal access to the computer technology by the goverjance, high initial cost for setting up the e government solutions and resistance to change.
Challenges identified as trust, resistance to change, digital divide, cost and privacy and security concerns. Trust can be defined along two dimensions: as an assessment of a current situation, or as an innate personality traitor predisposition.
?·?The e-Governance Project Lifecycle course is designed to equip participants with the necessary background and understanding on structured approach for conceptualisation of e-Governance initiatives, various phases of e-Governance project Lifecycle, key considerations during each phase of development, activities and outputs of each phase. Project Management in e-GovernanceBangalore, India8 - 9 September What is e-Governance? e-Governance is gaining popularity as the efficient new way of delivering public services. This technology-driven method changes not just the way a service is delivered but also opens new avenues of communication between the government and the citizens. ?·?e-District is one of the 31 Mission Mode Projects under National e Governance Plan (NeGP) with the DIT, GoI being the nodal ministry. This project aims at providing support to the basic administrative unit i.e. District Administration by undertaking backend computerization to enable electronic delivery of high volume citizen centric government services which would optimally leverage .
G overnments across the world are adopting e-Governance. In each department and in each state government, one finds a plethora of IT projects in various stages of implementation conceptualisation, implementation, deployment and up-gradation to latest technology.
One also finds many abandoned projects. For each successful project, one can count an equal if not higher number of failed IT projects. A survey of e-Governance projects by a Professor in Development Informatics in the University of Manchester in developing and transition economies revealed that as many as 85 percent e-Governance projects are either partial failures for not having attained all the intended goals, or total failures- having been abandoned soon after implementation.
The common reasons for such failures include lack of internal ownership; absence of vision or strategy, poor project management, inadequate technological infrastructure, unwillingness to adopt IT enabled governance techniques and obstacles in transitioning legacy government data to a computerized format. Traditional governance systems are usually not amenable to computerization, and insufficient business process reengineering is also cited as a major reason for the failure of e-Governance projects.
I present here some ideas for enhancing the success rate of e-Governance projects. Keeping it simple by taking baby steps is more likely to succeed. In other words, evolutionary ideas are likelier to succeed than revolutionary leaps.
This is because of limited capacity of the government on the technological and human front. Therefore, e-Governance projects should build carefully and sustainably on the existing ICT usage base. Instead of directly trying to implement large scale process re-engineering and backend computerisation, the stages of e-Governance should be kept in mind. In the first phase, e-Governance merely means a simple presence on the web which provides the public with relevant Government to Citizen G2C and Government to Business G2B information.
People can ask questions via e-mail, use search engines, and download forms and documents, saving time and money. In phase three, complete transactions should be enabled so that they may be conducted without the citizen having to visit a government office. Phase three is made complex because of security and personalisation issues, such as the necessity of digital electronic signatures to enable legal transfer of services. It is also the phase which requires maximum process reengineering and change management within the government functioning.
As we set out on our path of e-Governance ,we need to remember that we should commence our projects from simple provision of information online, and slowly work our way towards the long term vision of a unified platform for e-delivery of services, for we must walk before we can run. Requirements for regular run of the mill projects in the IT industry are usually captured to the last detail in various project documents such as functional requirement study, requirement traceability matrix, high level design, system requirement study, low level design etc which are duly vetted by the client.
These requirements are then communicated by business analysts to the software development team so that they may translate the requirement into software, working peacefully in their zones of comfort. Once the development is completed, the client checks the software against the earlier documented requirements and acceptance testing is done.
The project is thus rolled out as in a smooth waterfall model, without much change in requirements from one stage to the next.
On the other hand, adopting the waterfall method for e-Governance applications runs the risk of failure since this method is not capable to cater to the change in requirements and priorities, which is the rule rather than exception in the government setup. Government departments typically perform multiple functions involving complex processes. New tasks, schemes and projects are added ever so often.
For many functions, there are no documented standard procedures and processes. For others, the actual practice varies from one office to another even within the same department. Such continually evolving and non-standardised processes compound the problem of capturing and freezing the requirements for software development in a single cycle. This would cause initiation of another cycle of study, documentation, development and testing, causing a hiatus in the project rollout.
By the time the next version of software is presented, the department officials may have lost interest or even more likely, priorities may have changed, especially with a new boss at the helm of affairs who would be keen to put his stamp on the project.
This leads to an endless loop of requirement study and subsequent development- a sure recipe of failure. Therefore, adopting the traditional waterfall method for software development within the e-Governance domain is likely to be time consuming, especially if application software is to be developed de novo or even if there is a commercial off the shelf product readily available.
Instead of taking years to completely automate all the processes of a department or an activity using the traditional waterfall software development life cycle, an agile methodology is more likely to succeed.
Agile software development is an interactive process that allows small development teams to develop software in a collaborative environment that is responsive to business change. Development is done in short iterations, each iteration adding incremental functionality to the software. This methodology involves prototyping the use of a working model of the final system, which users can see, comment on, and have revised before the final version is produced.
This ensures that the design matches real user needs. It also provides the flexibility to quickly react to changes in the environment.
Government procurement framework, however, does not facilitate adoption of agile methodology, since it is typically based fixed cost models. Rajasthan, as also some other states have found a way out for building software using agile methodology by getting work done on man-month rates, discovered through open bidding processes. It is suggested that even in cases where traditional waterfall methodology is used, software can be built incrementally in stages. A related methodology is prototyping the use of a working model of the final system, which users can see, comment on, and have revised before the final version is produced.
Another recommended practice is piloting implementing the e-government system on a small scale at a single site or office; learning and improving the system; and only then rolling out on a large scale to all sites. Adoption of these methods has been shown to increase the chances of project success.
Because of their very nature, e-Governance projects need external facilitation and encouragement. In fact, an e-Governance project may not even be conceived without external support and encouragement. However, without ownership within the department for whom the e-Governance project is being implemented, e-Governance initiatives may never be successful. Not only should the strategic and critical components be decided by the internal users but they should take complete ownership of the project.
Any project, IT or non- IT, is doomed for disaster if totally outsourced. While the role of vendors in triggering the conceptualisation of a project should be welcomed, it should not so happen that the government department loses control and the project is totally vendor driven. Private companies can definitely play the part of subject matter experts and update government functionaries with the latest technological developments and trends in e-Governance across other states thereby aiding them in conceptualizing and implementing IT projects.
However, at the end of the day, it is the responsibility of the concerned government department to freeze requirements and specifications in keeping with their needs rather than in line with the features of COTS software. It may be noted that the Government Department of Information Technology or e-Governance Societies and companies, which most of the States have established, in this sense, are also outsiders and cannot totally take over the role of the end user government department, when they are asked to implement a project.
The requirements of the departments are best understood only by internal department users, and so, a project executed independently by the state IT Company, Society or Department for another government department without involvement and ownership by the client department is also likely to fail.
The role of the State IT departments is to encourage and facilitate e-Governance and act as a change driver; establish the IT infrastructure including the data centre, network and the CSCs for use by other government departments; build generic and application software for use by multiple departments; act as the technology consultant to government departments and build standards and meta data. After long drawn out consultations with senior officers of all involved government departments, we in Rajasthan built software for application for and delivery of various certificates bona fide residence, caste, income, solvency, etc.
Government orders were issued by the departments providing legal sanctity to these certificates. The objective was to make available at the doorsteps of villagers digitally signed certificates through the CSCs so as to reduce the time and money involved in travelling to the tehsil office.
It was expected that this citizen centric scheme would be demand driven as it would save not only money and time but also provide hassle free services to the citizens. However, the scheme did not take off as expected even after a couple of months despite training and publicity. A quick evaluation revealed that it had increased the burden of the sanctioning officers the Tehsildars as the process of affixing digital signatures was very slow and cumbersome.
The application software was then improved to be more user friendly for Tehsildars and computerized issuance of digitally signed certificates quickly gained popularity, amongst both citizens and department officials.
An important lesson was learnt in the process. The first attempt at the project which took a top-down approach was a failure. The second attempt ensured that the lower and middle level users were involved with the project. Their ideas were incorporated into the design, and the process of involvement also helped develop their commitment. Involvement of the lowest level of functionaries right from the beginning is essential for gaining the support of the users. Key stakeholders officers, employees, operators, users, citizens, etc must support an e-Governance initiative.
To garner stakeholder support in any project, it must prove advantageous to that stakeholder. Many e-Governance projects fail as the employees feel that their job is threatened or their position undermined.
While allaying such fears, the application software should offer benefits like reducing filing hassles or repetitive work. Benefit to the citizens, especially, must be kept uppermost in mind while conceptualizing e-Governance projects. If a project offers no or little utility to citizens, it is likely to die a natural death.
It is well documented that e-Governance projects have cost and time overruns. Very often, major risks and issues in the project are not addressed in a timely fashion. The end product is often not in line with the user requirements. Such phenomena point to poor project management. It needs to be understood that project management is different from general management, especially so in the e-Governance arena.
If a manager is managing his department well, it is not necessary that he will be a good project manager. Use of project management software is recommended. Since knowledge of project management tools is limited in the government, option to use the project management software of consultants and system integrators should be explored.
Yeates, D. The system halts and all the lights go out. In the central control room someone is marshalling resources, implementing the standby facilities, rescheduling the trains, calling the emergency services. Someone else is walking along the darkened platform with a torch bringing a trainload of people to safety.
They need effective managers as well as inspirational leaders. Effective leadership is needed to ensure a strong focus while directing, pushing or encouraging the government officials in the implementation of e-Governance projects.
Moreover, the leadership has to be sustained as these projects are long term. Frequent change in government functionaries puts e-Governance projects in jeopardy. Much work has already been done across India in e-Governance. Implementing a readymade, tried and tested solution with minor customization saves effort, time and money. If ready-made software is not available and its development is indeed to be outsourced, one needs to think twice before choosing the L1 or Least Cost Based Selection LCBS methodology for selecting the software development company.
This mechanism may be suited for procuring standardized items likely computer hardware, licenses for generic computer software etc. However, it is not likely to yield the desired application software required for complex e-Governance projects.
Software is an intellectual property, which cannot be developed by a vendor selected on cost considerations alone. The quality of the software will depend on the quality of the software development professionals and the development and testing processes used by the vendor. A Combined Cost and Quality Selection method is, thus, highly desirable. Moreover, the technical scoring criterion needs to be appropriately designed.