How Does Insulin Work At The Cellular Level
When you have diabetes, you donít have enough insulin in your blood (an organ in your body called the pancreas makes insulin). Insulin controls the movement of blood sugar into the cells of the body. For body cells to continue growing and working, they need energy (blood sugar is the energy source your body cells feed on).Estimated Reading Time: 1 min. Nov 08, †∑ Normally, insulin triggers fat and muscle cells to take up sugar from the blood. Patients with type II diabetes make plenty of insulin, but their cells do not respond to it properly.
Diabetes is a chronic long-lasting health condition that affects how your body turns food into energy. Most of the food you eat is broken down into sugar also called glucose and released into your bloodstream. When your blood sugar goes up, it signals your pancreas to release insulin. Over time, that can cause serious health problems, such as heart diseasevision lossand kidney disease.
Taking medicine as needed, getting diabetes self-management education and supportand keeping health care appointments can also reduce the impact of diabetes on your life. There are three main types of diabetes: type 1type 2and gestational diabetes diabetes while pregnant. Type 1 diabetes is thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction the body attacks itself by mistake that stops your body from making insulin.
Symptoms of type 1 diabetes often develop quickly. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes. It develops over many years and is usually diagnosed in adults but more and more in children, teens, and young adults. Type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed with healthy lifestyle changes, such as losing weight, eating healthy food, and being active. Gestational diabetes develops in pregnant women who have never had diabetes.
If you have gestational diabetes, your baby could be at higher risk for health problems. Gestational diabetes usually goes away after your baby is born but increases your risk for type 2 diabetes later in life. Your baby is more likely to have obesity as a child or teen, and more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life too.
In the United States, 88 million adultsómore than 1 in 3óhave prediabetes. With prediabetes, blood sugar levels are higher than normal, but not high enough yet to be diagnosed as type 2 diabetes. Prediabetes raises your risk for type 2 diabetes, heart disease, and stroke. The good news is if you have prediabetes, a CDC-recognized lifestyle change program can help you take healthy steps to reverse it.
Skip directly to site content Skip directly to page options Skip directly to A-Z link. Section Navigation. Facebook Twitter LinkedIn Syndicate. What is Diabetes? Minus Related Pages. Diabetes by the Numbers. Diabetes is the seventh leading cause of death in the United States.
Diabetes is the How to open a jpeg image. In the last 20 yearsthe number of adults diagnosed with diabetes has more than doubled.
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Type 2 Symptoms
If you have type 1 diabetes, youíll need to take insulin every day to survive. Currently, no one knows how to prevent type 1 diabetes. Type 2 Diabetes. With type 2 diabetes, your body doesnít use insulin well and canít keep blood sugar at normal levels. About % of people with diabetes have type datingfuckdating.comted Reading Time: 3 mins. In type 1 diabetes, the bodyís immune system attacks the beta cells in the pancreas. When the beta cells are lost there is not sufficient insulin for proper control of glucose levels. Resulting high sugar levels in the blood can cause damage to the kidneys, eyes, nervous system, and other datingfuckdating.comted Reading Time: 9 mins. All these cellular changes cause damaging fat and sugar levels to rise in the blood. Those with Type 2 diabetes are actually a small part of a larger group that has metabolic syndrome or Syndrome X, which was first recognized in the early s. This syndrome includes everyone who has insulin datingfuckdating.comted Reading Time: 6 mins.
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder in which the body has trouble using its own insulin to control the blood sugar. At the time of diagnosis, beta cells often are producing as much or more insulin as would be needed by someone else of equal weight. But changes in liver, fat, and muscle cells have created resistance to insulin.
Fat cells are not responsive to insulin, so they begin releasing free fatty acids into the bloodstream and these worsen the response to insulin. The liver does not respond to insulin so it is less able to turn off its production and release of glucose, and the blood sugar rises further.
Cells in the muscles would normally pick up glucose from the blood, but insulin resistance weakens this effort. All these cellular changes cause damaging fat and sugar levels to rise in the blood.
Those with Type 2 diabetes are actually a small part of a larger group that has metabolic syndrome or Syndrome X, which was first recognized in the early s. This syndrome includes everyone who has insulin resistance. Syndrome X is found in one out of every four Americans with signs that include insulin resistance, cholesterol problems especially a low HDL and high triglycerides , and high blood pressure.
Those with an apple figure who carry excess weight predominantly in their abdomen are at the highest risk to develop Syndrome X. By the time Type 2 diabetes is discovered, 10 to 15 years of high blood sugars often have passed.
Symptoms in Type 2 diabetes often start gradually and can easily be confused with normal aging. There can be no symptoms or only mild ones. Many people find out they have diabetes after a high blood sugar is found during a routine health exam. Early diagnosis and treatment are facilitated by having an annual physical exam that includes a blood sugar test. Because diagnosis is commonly delayed, serious complications may already be in progress at the time the disease is discovered.
Therefore, a complete checkup for complications and associated diseases should be done as soon as diabetes is discovered. For anyone with an apple figure, helpful tests include blood pressure measurement, a complete lipid panel for triglycerides, HDL, LDL, and total cholesterol; a microalbumin test of the urine to detect early kidney changes; examination of the eyes by an ophthalmologist for retinopathy; examination of the feet for nerve and vascular problems; and a careful evaluation of the heart.
For those with diabetes, an additional test called the hemoglobin A1C should be done. This test shows the average blood sugar for the last three months. Blood Pressure Systolic diastolic Fasting Glucose. People over 40 who are sedentary and overweight, especially with excess weight around the middle, are the most likely to develop Type 2 diabetes. People who have a family history of Type 2 diabetes and those with a Hispanic, Black, Native American, or Asian background are more likely to develop Type 2 when excess weight is gained.
People with Type 2 diabetes produce insulin but because of insulin resistance, the insulin does not work well. Over several years of having the disease, they gradually stop producing insulin. Some 85 to 90 percent of all diabetes is Type 2. Treatments for insulin resistance Type 2 diabetes revolves around varied combinations of diet, exercise, medications, or insulin.
Insulin resistance is best treated with weight loss, a healthy diet, and exercise. Because insulin production gradually fails in Type 2 diabetes, insulin can become necessary as part of the treatment plan. The apple figure is almost universal in Type 2 diabetes and is occasionally encountered in adults with Type 1 diabetes.
This cardiovascular risk for heart disease goes up two and a half times for men with diabetes and an apple figure. The risk rises eightfold for women with diabetes and this shape. Men and women with the apple figure share the same high risk for heart disease. Before you blame your parents, realize that very controllable lifestyle factors are the cause of excess fat deposits in the middle.
These factors include the use of alcohol especially beer , smoking, stress, lack of exercise, gaining more than normal weight, eating fewer than three meals a day, and a diet high in fat or simple sugars.
Fat cells in this location are able to release fat into the bloodstream much faster than fat cells located elsewhere. For instance, fat begins to be released from the abdomen three to four hours after the last meal compared to many more hours for fat cells in other areas of the body. This easy release was designed to provide rapid access to fuel for exertion needed for hunting and fleeing from danger.
The excess fat in the abdomen turns out to be a major cause of insulin resistance. Excess heart risks accompany an apple figure in the form of higher triglyceride levels, lower HDL protective cholesterol , higher blood pressure, Type 2 diabetes, and kidney disease. Often there is a family history of high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, and cholesterol problems. To find out if you have an apple figure, use a tape measure to measure around your waist an inch above your navel.
Next measure your hips at their widest point. Then divide your waist measurement by your hip measurement. Ratios above 0. Type 1 Diabetes Type 1. The Insulin Resistance Syndrome A diagnosis of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome is established when 3 or more of these risk factors are present.
A diagnosis of the Insulin Resistance Syndrome is established when 3 or more of these risk factors are present.